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NORN KJOKL • View topic - Caithness Specific Gaelic words

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 11:45 pm 
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Location: An Eaglais Dhubh, Alba
I would be interested to see if anyone can pick out any Norse influence in any of these. This is the sum total of words which have meanings peculiar to -or are in fact themselves- peculiar to Caithness Gaelic from Dwelly's Great Gaelic Dictionary. There are certainly one or two which look like they might fit the bill!

abhardach (DMK) a Curious, anomalous. Caithness.
aileag (AF) sf Swallow - hirundo rustica, see gobhlan-gaoithe. 2 Storm petrel - hydrobates pelagicus. 3 Meteorite. Sutherland & Caithness (DMK).
allan-fionn sm Spinal marrow of man or beast. Caithness.
amar-mine (DMK) sm Part of a Highland mill into which the meal dropped as it was being ground, and into which it was generally sifted. Caithness.
àsradh sm (CR) Pining, a disease of sheep - Sutherland. 2(DMK) A wasting disease in young cattle. Caithness.
athaich (DMK) s Growing corn damaged by fowls or other animals. 2 Corn so damaged - Caithness.
bainne briste sm Whipped cream with oatmeal - Caithness, Lewis and Sutherland, (C. Rev., Ill, 187).
bainne lampan (DMK) sm Milk that thickens spontaneously. Caithness.
bàn -àin, sm Left-hand side of furrow in ploughing, as distinguished from the “dearg” (red) right-hand side. 2** Matrix of a cow. 3(JM) Fallow ground. 4(DMK) Placenta of a cow - Caithness.
bannanban (DMK) sm see bannaban above. Caithness.
bìotag (DMK) sf Bad woman. Sometimes, by way of emphasis it is bìotag na pìce. Caithness.
biotaidh (DMK) sm Bad man. Thàinig biotaidh, the bad man has come. Caithness.
brad (DMK) sf Laying goose - Caithness.
buclag (DMK) sf Rounded stone about the size of a putting-stone. Caithness.
cailleach-fhraoich (DMK) sf A large sheaf of heather tied tightly together with ropes of the same material, used as a door to a sheep cot or similar building. The same as “cual-fhraoich”, Caithness.
càl-deanntaig (DMK) sm Leaves of the common nettle cooked and eaten as cabbage. Caithness.
càl-diolais (DMK) sm Leaves of the mugwort (artemisia vulgaris) - cooked and eaten as cabbage. Caithness.
canabhlas (DMK) s Form of imprecation - canabhlas ort! Caithness & Sutherland.
carraigeadh(DMK) sm Process of separating the grain from the straw after threshing. Caithness.
casarmachd (DMK) sf State of being bare-footed - Caithness.
ceann-cnaip (DMU) sm Leader of men, a man of light and leading, Caithness.
ceann-cnapaig sm Fish's head stuffed with oatmeal etc. Caithness, Sutherland and Lewis.
ceann-propaig sm see ceann cnapaig - Caithness, Lewis and Sutherland.
ceannaidheachd (DMK) sf Private parts of a woman. Caithness.
ceannarmachd (DMK) sf Bareheadedness, Caithness.
ceathramh-dubh (DMK) sm Disease in young cattle. Caithness.
clach-shaichte (DMK) sf Dressed or sculptured stone. Caithness.
clach-shìoman (DMK) sf Stone that weights and keeps in its place the heather or other rope with which the thatch of houses is secured. Caithness.
cnag -aig, -an, sf Locative cnaigean. Pin. 2 Peg. 3 Knob. 4 Knock. 5 Tholepin of a rowing-boat. 6** Wrinkle. 7 see cnac. 8 Plug. 9¶ Pine-grosbeak (pinicola enucleator). 10** Woodpecker, little wood-rapper. 11(DMK). Small pin or peg of wood sewn on articles of clothing for buttons. They were in use in Gairloch in the middle of the nineteenth century. 12 Stump to sit on - Sutherland. 13 Pin to which a harp string is attached. 14 Cog of a wheel. 15(DMK) Shinty ball - Caithness.
cnamh pr pt a' cnamh (pron. cramh) va Suck, as the young of animals. Tha an laogh a' cnamh a mhàthair, the calf is sucking his mother - Caithness.
cnap -aip, -an, sm Knob. 2 Button. 3 Lump. 4 Boss, stud. 5 Little hill. 6 Little blow, thump. 7 Potato. 8** Stout boy. 9** Knot in wood. 10 Rope - Caithness. 11(MS) Bang. 12(DU) Heel of a boot etc.
cogais * sf Prodigiously large red carbuncle nose. — Isles. 2 Cog of a wheel. 3 Ludicrous name for a large pinch of snuff. 4 Nose — Skye. 5 Nasal canal — Lewis. 6 Cork of a bottle — Ross & Caithness. 7 Huge frog —Invernessshire. 8 Throttle — Arran.
coirmeagadh (DMK) sm Trouble. Na cuir coirmeagadh air, don't trouble him. Caithness.
creachadair (DMK) sm Skua - Caithness.
criarachan (DMK) sm Nest of wild birds before it is lined or finished. Caithness.
cròchan sm (MMcD) Wheezing in the throat. 2(DMK) Broken and swampy ground in which rough grass grows. Caithness.
crugais (DMK) s Frame of wood that enclosed the millstone and in which the hopper was set in the old mill. Caithness.
cuairteachadh-teaghlaich (AC) sm Family worship. — Ross, Sutherland & Caithness.
cuingeach-cléibh (DMK) sm Pleurodynia. Caithness.
cuiseachadh (DMK) sm Proposing, intending. Tha mi a' cuiseachadh falbh, I intend to go - Caithness.
culm (CR) sm Energy, push, liveliness (about business) — Perthshire. 2 Gloom, haze, darkness of atmosphere — W. of Ross-shire. 3 Mill dust separated from the grain in the process of shelling - Caithness. Tha culm air a' ghréin, the sun is hazy. (gulm)
cuman -ain, sm Milking-pail. 2 Circular wooden dish without a handle, Scots, cogue. †3 Shrine. 4** Skimmer. 6(AF) Angler (fish) — Caithness. A cuman eadar a dà ghlùn, her pail between her knees.
dannsairean, na ~ spl The Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis. Caithness.
dilaoiris (DMK) s Poor, needful, helpless person, object of charity. May be equated with diol-déirce, sm Beggar 2 Object of charity. Caithness.
diolt a (DMK) Devilish. Diolt maith, devilish good, Caithness and Sutherland.
dioltaidh a (DMK) Devilish. Dioltaidh dona, devilish bad, Caithness and Sutherland.
diongmhalt (DMK) a Stubborn, self-willed. Caithness.
diùc (DMK) sf pl diùcach, Duck - Caithness.
diùcach sm Duck. Caithness.
dùad (SMK), sm Blockhead. 2 Man having a “want”. Caithness and Sutherland.
duain (CR) pr pt a' duanadh, va Close, shut. [Rare in Suth'd, common in Caithness].
duaineil (CR) a Ugly, ill-looking - Suttherland. 2 Ridiculous, ludicrous, laughable - Sàr-Obair. 3(DMK) Churlish, objectionable, not likeable. Chan eil e duaineil idir, he is not at all a bad fellow - Caithness & Sutherland.
dùn-feòir sm (DMK) Conical stack of hay - Caithness.
faradh (DMK) sm Bier. Caithness.
fàrag (DMK) sf A worm that burrows in the hide of cattle when they are in low condition in the late spring and early summer. Caithness.
feadan na h-àth (DMK) sm Narrow passage leading from the fire to the pit of a kiln. Caithness.
finilte (DMK) s Poultice. Caithness.
fìorlaid (DMK) sf Firlot, measure containing 1.5 bushels 3 quarts. Caithness.
flasg(DMK) s Rushes dressed and prepared for making into ropes. Caithness.
frodhs Method called proof of ascertaining the quantity of grain that a stock of corn will yield before it is threshed. Tha e a' frodh as a' chruaich', he is proofing the stack. Caithness.
frodhadairsm Proof-man. See under frodh. Caithness.
fuarag sf Cream whipped with the loinid or frothing-stick to which new oatmeal is added. Caithness, Sutherland & Lewis.
geir (DMK) sf Pain experienced in the wrist of persons manipulating the pruning hook. Used with the article, a' gheir. Caithness.
gibeag-fhlaisg (DMK) sf Handful of rushes, seasoned and prepared for making into ropes. Caithness.
giollan (DMK) pl of gille, boy. Caithness.
giorasach (DMK) sm Hare (lepus europaeus) - Caithness.
giug (DMK) s Offal of a fish. Giug sgadan, offal of herring. Caithness.
gloc-gàire (DMK) Caithness for lachan-gàire.
glòmag sf Handful of oatmeal eaten dry — Caithness, Suth'd & Lewis. (also gròmag). 2(DC) Pool in a stream or river — Argyll.
glòn (DMK) a. Cross-eyed. 2 Having much of the white of the eyes visible — Caithness.
gnudhadh (DMK) sm The slush from drifting snow in the winter. Pronounced grudhadh. Caithness.
goileachan-éisg sm Stomach of a fish stuffed with livers of fish minced with oatmeal and spices — Caithness, Suth'd & Lewis.
griogaran (DMK) spl Pleiades - Caithness.
gùn-goirid (DMK) sm Bed-gown. Worn by women by day and night. Caithness.
làimhreagadh (DMK) sm Mixture of oatmeal and water added to the water in which meat had been boiled, thus making it into soup — Caithness.
langadan (DMK) sm Rope placed on one of the forelegs and one of the hind legs of an animal to impede its locomotion and thus prevent it straying. Caithness.
lathaich-mhòine (DMK) s Peat-moss, place where peats are cut. Caithness.
léidig Caithness for léitig.
liaghra sf Two sticks crossed together in the centre and set on a swivel-pin in a block of wood called the stoc. A pin of wood is fixed in each of the four extremities of the sticks, and round this a hank of thread is placed which is unravelled and made into a ball, as the operator spins the instrument round. Thread-winder. Also called “crann-tachrais”; na sgiathan in Caithness, crois-iarna in Gairloch, eachan (little horse) in Argyll, crois-lionraidh in Lewis and bodach-sgiathan in Suth'd.

Parts of a liaghra:
1. Stob na liaghra, sm Pin on which the reel revolves. 2. Am bonn, s The stock. 3. Na trì casan, sf pl The three feet. 4. Ceirsle, sf The clew. 5. An iarna, sf The hank. 6. Liadhan na crois, sf pl The blades or ladles of the cross. 7. Biorain, sm pl Pins to stretch the hank. 8. Na tuill, sm pl Holes for pins.
loch gen -a, [luich, very seldom used]. pl. -an & -annan, sm [generally fem, in Caithness, Suth'd and most parts of Ross — DMu] Arm of the sea. 2 Lake. A freshwater lake is “loch uisge.” Miann lach — an loch air nach bi, a duck's desire — the lake where she is not.
lòinean -ein, -an, see lònan. 2(DMK) The fat covering of the kidneys of beef or mutton — Caithness.
maisean (DMK) sm An amiable and virtuous man. Caithness.
marag-geòidh (DMK) sf Pudding made in the stomach of a goose, consisting of the blood and fat of the goose with seasoning. Caithness.
meacan -ain, -an, sm Root of a tree or plant. 2 Bulb. 3 Birth, extraction, nativity. 4 Parsnip. 5(MS) Carrot. 6 Turnip. 7 Hire, reward. 8 Offspring. 9 Twig, shoot 10 Small rod. 11 Plant. 12(DMK) Individual. Is buan meacan na falachd, long lasts the rod whose root sprang from blood; cha robh meacan ann, there was not an individual there —Caithness.
mearachadh -aidh, sm Perishing from exposure. A' mearachadh, pr pt of mearaich. Chaidh a mhearachadh air a' mhonaidh, he perished from exposure on the hill — common occurrence in snowstorms — Caithness.
mersgirra (AF) s. Angler-fish (lophius piscatorius) — Caithness.
miodhag (DMK) sf Thug e miodhag asam, he nipped me. Caithness.
mòine-sluasaid (DMK) sf Kind of peats having the same breadth and thickness. They are cut by the operator standing in the face of the bank and pushing the spade forward horizontally — Caithness.
muchais (DMK) spl Moths — Caithness.
neul gen neòil, pl. neòil, neulta & neulan, sm Cloud. 2 Hue, complexion. 3 Swoon, fainting fit. 4|| Trance. 5 Star. 6 Blemish, stigma. 7 Nap or wink of sleep. 8 Sight. 9 Glimpse of light. Mar a' ghrian agus neul 'ga sgàileadh, as the sun and a cloud overshadowing it; cha d'fhuair mi neul cadail, I did not get a wink of sleep; neul bainne, a slight tinge of the colour of milk; tha neul deoch air, he has a slight appearance of drink; chaidh e an neul, he went into a trance, he fainted; a' mùthadh nan neul, changing in colour of the complexion; cha d'fhuair mi na chuireadh neul bharr cait, I did not get as much as would relieve a cat's faintness — said after a visit to an inhospitable house; neòil dhubha na Càisge, the dark clouds of Easter — the name for a period a week before Easter; thàinig neul 'nam cheann, I grew giddy — Caithness; mar neul rùiteach, like a ruddy cloud; air chùl neòil, behind a cloud.
pàintidh (DMK) sf The clay of which crockery is manufactured. 2 Fragments of broken pottery — Caithness.
ploc pluic, -an, sm Any round mass. 2 Piece of earth, large turf, large clod. 3 Club or bludgeon with around or large head. 4 Head of a pin. 5 Block of wood. 6 Short stump of a tree. 7 Bung, stopper. 8 Block, pulley. 9 Roundhead. 10 Hump, hunch. 11 Chump. 12 Cheek. 13 Potato masher. 14 Lumpish promontory. 15** Blockhead. 16 Block-headed stick. 17 Block-headed instrument. 18(DMK) Shinty-club - Caithness. Ploc-chùl-teallaich, a block of wood placed at the back of the fire.
plòiseach (DMK) sm Portion of anything, as of a piece of cloth — Caithness.
poc || sm The mumps. [With the art. am poc]. 2(DMK) Disease in cattle — Caithness.
raing (DMK) sf Ring of meal that forms around the edge of the upper mill-stone when the mill is grinding — Caithness.
ràing (DMK) s Ring of meal that forms around the edge of the upper millstone when the mill is grinding. Caithness.
rùdail(DMK) sf Rumbling noise in the bowels — Caithness.
seisreach -ich, -ichean, sf Plough with six horses. 2 Team of horses. The team was reduced successively from six to four and then to two and the word keeping pace with the reduction is now applied e.g. in Arran, W. of Ross Lorn &c to a pair of horses. The six-horse plough was in use in Ireland about 1000 AD and was employed in Scotland till a comparatively recent date. It was also in use in England in the lifetime of persons now living. The wooden plough continued in use well within living memory but that was probably of an improved type. The horses were yoked abreast in the same manner as in the four-horse ploughs used in Sutherland and Caithness in the middle of the 12th century. The elder-wood was considered superior to all other kinds for making the working parts of a wooden plough. Seisreach fearainn, a plough-land.
sgealp -a & -eilp, -an, sf Slap with the palm of the hand. 2 Sound of a blow so given. 3 Quick, sudden sound. 4(DMK) Sharp report, as of a pistol — Caithness. 4 see sgealp. [sm **]
sgiath -éith & -éithe, pl. -an, sf Wing, pinion. 2 Wing of a house or army. 3 Portion of land jutting into the sea. 4 Shelter, protection. 5 Shield, buckler, target. 6 Bilge-piece in boat, see bàta, F 8, p. 73. 7 Furrow-board of a plough. 8 Top sides or floats of a cart. 9 pl. (na sgiathan) Caithness for liaghra, which see. 10 Side-wing of a boat, see p. 77. Sgiath-mhuilinn-gaoithe, fan of a windmill — small circular apparatus at back to keep the sails to the wind; sgiath faochaig, the disc which forms the door of a whelk {operculum}; fo do sgéith, under your wing; le 'sgiath 's le 'chlogaid, with his shield and his helmet; feadh bholg a sgéith, around the boss of his shield.
sgorrag (DMK) sf Small bannock of oatmeal with a hole in the centre, made for children — Caithness.
sileadh-sùith (DMK) sm Rain percolating through the sooty thatch of a house and falling in large black drops indelibly staining everything it comes in contact with — Caithness.
sìoman-òrdaig (DMK) sm Rope made of straw or hay twisted with the thumb — Caithness, Argyll &c.
sìthichte pt pt of sìthich. Pacified, reconciled, quieted. 2 Pleased — Caithness.
sluinnse (DMK) v. Lash, thrash — Caithness.
smiorcadh -aidh, sm Mettle, courage. 2(DMK) Sense — Caithness. Chan eil smiocadh (de chiall) aige, he has no “fight” in him — Suth'd; chan eil smiorcadh céill aige, he has not a spark of sense.
sopachan (DMK) sm Handful of fine heather, tied tightly together and used for scrubbing dishes, particularly milk-dishes — Caithness, Suth'd, Gairloch &c. 2(DU) Small wisp of straw in which the ends of knitting-needles are stuck. It is tied to the knitter's belt or pinned to her dress — Gairloch.
spat (DMK) sm Heavy shower of rain. Spat-uisge, a heavy fall of rain — Caithness.
spice † (DMK) sf Pinnacle, conical peak, anything pointed — Caithness.
srannach -aiche, a. Snoring, snorting. 2 Humming, making a humming sound. 3 Making a whistling or whizzing sound. 4(DMK) Speaking through the nose — Caithness.
stopag-fhraoich (DMD) sf Single stalk of heather with the root attached — Caithness. [steapag — DMK].
stradhaigeadh Caithness for stràbhaigeadh.
suaint (DMK) adv High degree of excellence. Tha e suaint math, it is exceedingly good — Caithness.
sùstan (CR) -ain, pl. sùstana, sm Thousand — Caithness.
sùthar (DMK) a. Civil, affable, polite, gentle — Caithness.
teadhair -dhrach, -dhraichean, sf Tether. 2†† Rope. 3(DMK) Rope stretched across the kitchen having the ends attached to the couple and used for hanging articles of clothing on to dry, also as a repository for such articles — Caithness & Suth'd. 4** Cart-rope. Dhèanadh e teadhair de roinnean, he would make a tether with a hair.
tìoradh -aidh, -aidhean, sm Drying, act of drying, as corn or hay. 2 Kiln-drying, act of kiln-drying. 3** Scorching. A' tìoradh, pr pt of tìor. 4(DMK) As much grain as is dried on a kiln at a time, Scots, “drying.” Tha tìoradh air an àth, the is a “drying” on the kiln — Caithness.
toll-cartaidh (DMK) sm Square opening in the wall of a byre through which the muck is thrown out to the dunghill — Caithness.
tromallan || sm Numbness from pressure. 2(DMK) sm Cold in the head, complicated with pains in various parts of the body — Caithness.
tuartan (DMK) sm Cold in the head — Caithness.
tùthan (DMK) spl Long rafters laid across the couples in the roof of a house — Caithness, see taobhan.
uailean (DMK) spl Stilts or handles of a plough — Caithness.
ullag -aig, -an, sf Mouthful of meal. 2** Pugil. 3** Multure, {miller's fee}. 4 As much of flour or any pulverized substance as can be lifted between the thumb and two fingers. 5 Freshly-bruised oatmeal worked into a handful with water, milk or whisky and eaten unbaked — Caithness, Suth'd & Lewis; handful of oatmeal eaten dry in other parts. 6(DMy) Ullag was made of barley grain as soon as reaped, dried in a pot till brown, then ground on the quern and mixed with hot water and a little salt, when it was very palatable — Ness, Lewis. In Argyll, ullag-shneachd is a snowball; and, a' tilgeil ullagan, throwing snowballs.
upaig (DMK) sm & f Old and useless person, one regarded as being in the way. Tha e 'na upaig anns an rathad, he is a lumber in the way — Caithness.
uradh (DMK) sm Stale urine used for washing on account of the ammonia it contains — Caithness. 2(DU) Water in which clothes have been washed. 3(DU) Dirty water wrung out of wool.

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 31, 2012 11:48 pm 
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Location: An Eaglais Dhubh, Alba
Remember:

ch = /x/
dh = /ɣ/ before a, o, u /j/ before e, i
bh, mh = /v/
th, sh = /h/
fh = silent

d, s, t are soft before i and e....
preaspiration before c, p and t....

:)

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PostPosted: Tue Jan 01, 2013 2:52 am 
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Joined: Mon Dec 31, 2012 12:12 am
Posts: 32
Location: An Eaglais Dhubh, Alba
Most of these are conjecture but there are two or three direct hits :)

aker nm. 1. corn(field): aker og hø corn(field) and hay; 2. stalks of corn; 3. something destroyed; at leggja i aker to crush, destroy
athaich /aːix/ s Growing corn damaged by fowls or other animals. 2 Corn so damaged

doitt nm. dull, indolent person
dùad sm Blockhead. 2 Man having a “want”

fro nn. 1. seed of a plant
frodh /froː/ -Method called proof of ascertaining the quantity of grain that a stock of corn will yield before it is threshed. Tha e a' frodh as a' chruaich -he is proofing the stack

fla nn. (ON flag) thin, pared off heather- or grass-turf
flasg s -Rushes dressed and prepared for making into ropes
gibeag-fhlaisg sf Handful of rushes, seasoned and prepared for making into ropes

gjoger nm.species of sea-perch
giug s Offal of a fish

gloma vw. to grasp, gather
glomek nm. paw, large hand
glòmag sf Handful of oatmeal eaten dry

koga vw. to swallow, drink in large draughts
cogais /kɔgiʃ/ sf Cork of a bottle

kroga nf. shelter against bad weather
crugais /krugiʃ/ s Frame of wood that enclosed the millstone and in which the hopper was set in the old mill

pannjabrod nn. a piece of broken pot
pàintidh sf Fragments of broken pottery

ruta vw. to bellow loudly
rùdail sf Rumbling noise in the bowels

skellj nm. 1. crash, cracking sound of something hard falling or breaking
sgealp -a & -eilp, -an, sf Sharp report, as of a pistol

uppgiven adj. given up as hopeless
upaig sm & f Old and useless person, one regarded as being in the way. Tha e 'na upaig anns an rathad -he is a lumber in the way

-although upp is of course extremely common, being the word for 'up' or 'above', I see this come up in Gaelic here and there; as upraid /uprat'/ 'uproar' uppastju?. I think the up is borrowed from Norse.

urek nm. (ON úr) bolge-water
uradh /urəɣ/ sm Stale urine used for washing on account of the ammonia it contains — 2 Water in which clothes have been washed. 3 Dirty water wrung out of wool

There are a good few words here that I am 'suspicious' of, although I cannot find them in your dictionary. They are particular to Caithness and would benefit from further investigation:

brad, gnudhadh /gruəɣ/, langadan, mersgirra, muchais, raing, sgorrag, sluinnse /sluinʃə/, spat, spice /spixkə/, sùstan, sùthar /suːər/, tuartan, ullag

_____________

I think it would be interesting to compare all of the above words to modern Scandinavian tongues and also to Old Norse. Now there's something for the January months when it's cold and wet! :P

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PostPosted: Sun Jan 06, 2013 1:48 am 
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Thank you Àdhamh, this is something to build upon, to say the least! I hope our Orkney/Caithness Nynorn enthusiasts/developers (Hrafn and Yeti/ulvemannen) will take a notice. Keep on posting stuff like this whenever you can.


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PostPosted: Mon Jan 07, 2013 12:35 pm 
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No problem. Happy to act as 'Gaelic advisor' to the project, if that kind of thing is ever required or not already provided.

I will get the list of Norse borrowings from the Book on Leurbost Gaelic up soon....

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