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Phonetics of Orkney Norn
(to be updated)

Based on "Orkney Norn" by Hugh Marwick. Notice that Marwick uses the orthographical notation of Norn words (in "Examples"), not their transcription.

Old Norse Orkney Norn Examples (Norn < Old Norse)
a a andoo < andœfa, arvo < arfi, chaldro < tjaldr
  α nask < naska, skarf < skarfr, slack < slakki
  α graand < grandi, skaav < skafi, baakie < bal; frequently before an elided or assimilated consonant, as in aval < afvelta, avaless < afllauss, maalo < marlauk
  ε air < ar, backfett < -fattr, lecko < laki, krepp < krapp (umlaut forms?)
  į (rare) hinsho < handsko, skint < skant
  ʌ (rare) muggy < magi
  ɔ chold < tjalda, gonfert < gandferð
     
á o: (usually) bore < bára, geo < gjá, ho < hár, ogang < ágangr, skyo < skjá, skory < skári
  a: (occasionally) aak < álka, flaa < flá, -maa < már
  u: (rarely) mardroo < marþráðr
  ø: (rarely) skrue < skrá, shuimet < *hjálmóttr, huivy < háfr
  ɔu (rarely) blouster < blástr
     
e ε aint < enta, erkny < erkn, skegg < skegg, berry < berg, klett< klettr, elt < elta
  ε hail < hella
  e: (rare) kaivy < kefja, save - cf. Nor. sev
  α (rare) arkamy < erkn, kwark < kverka
  I brinno < brenna, rin, rinnick < renna
  į (rare) kyirk < kyrkja
     
é ε settin < séttingr
  e: shaygray < *hjela
     
i į kipp < kippa, bit < biti, kikk < kikk
  i geel < gil, kleester < klistra, week < vik
  i: leero < líri, meethe < mið
  ʌ (rare) tulfer < þilfar
  alternations leero/lyrie, meethe/maithe
     
í į (occas.) snippo < snípa, spick < spík
  i wheel < hvíla, kwee < kví
  i: reen < hrína, Lee < hlíð, teebro < tíðbrá
  ai (Scots infl.?) grice < gríss, kline < klína, skive < skífa
  i/ai occas. alternate kwee/kwy
     
o a (rarely) darro < dorg, garr/gurr < gor
  α: (rarely) skraal < skroll, baa < boði
  ʌ lurt < lortr, murr - Icel. mor, rud - Nor. rodda, gurr < gor
  u (occas.) kroopan < kroppinn, roodgoose < hroð-
  u: (occas.) loo < lo, floo < flo
  ǫ: (rarely) bawkie < bokki
  ø: (I-umlaut?) huiv < hov, ruithe < hroði, sluiter < sloðra
     
ó o: ? dome < dómr
  ø bøl < ból, uiss < óss, stuil < stóll
  ø: kuithe < kóð, ruise < hrósa
  u buo < bóla, Loomachun < lómatjǫrn, sooken < sókn
  u: sloo < sló, kloor < klóra, stoor < stórr, moorit < mórauðr
     
u u bool < bulla, doose < dusa, kooker < kurka
  u: moors < mura
  ʌ gump < gumpr, hurr < hurra, krummo < krumma, kunn < kunna, mulder < muldra, rugg < rugg, studdle < stuðull
  ø kuil < kul, uiko < ulk, styuilk < stulk
  į (occas.) birt < burðr, klimse < klumsa
     
ú u book < úkr, brook < brúk, doon < dúnn, skoot < skút, soog < súgr, toon < tún
  u: skroo < skrúfr, sooro < súra, stoo < *stúfa
  ø: uimater < úmáttr?, huin < húnn, kuivy < kúfr
     
y i bizzy < bys, minn < mynd, linyo < lygna, nizz < knysja, sirry < syrja, stinn < stynja
  į gilt < gylta, ritto < rytr, tinsal < þyngsl, tirl < þyrla, trist < þrysta
  ø huirn < hyrna
  I / ʌ stinn, stunn < stynja
     
ý i meeo < mý, sneet < snýta, speet < spýta
  ø nue < gnýja
  ai (Scots infl.?) geyro < gýgr, skila < skýla, sly < slý
     
æ e: aisins < æsing, braithe < bræða, saithe < sæði, saxhering < sexæringr
  ε: brail < bræla, lerblade < lær-
  į simmy < sæma, kniff < knæfr
     
œ ε: aikel < œxl, geskafoo < gœzku-fullr
  e: haze < œsa
  ø buil < bœla
  o bonie words < bœnar-orð?
  ǫ: oro < œrr
  i: meen < mœnir
     
ǫ ɔ golt < gǫltr, rost < rǫst, slokk < slǫkkva
  e/ε dekk < dǫkkr, kegel < kǫggull, kes < kǫs, kjest < kǫstr
  ʌ skurrock < skǫr, spurrey < spjǫrr
  į birk < bǫrkr
     
ei e: aize < eisa, maise < meiss, raiso < reisa, saithe < seiðr, skrae < skreið
  ai bysk < beiskr, geyro < geiri, neist < gneisti, skry < skreið, sny < sneið, snyse < sneis, tie < teigr, tyno < teinn
  ε(:) dello? < deili, skaively < skeifligr
     
au ɔu gowl < gaula, howe < haugr, nowt < naut, nout < knauta, owse < ausa, tout < tauta, tow < taugr
  ʌ duff < daufr, rumse < raumska
  ɔ gokk < gaukr, stot < stauta
  o: tome < taumr
  u(:) nust/nɔust < naust, hogboon < haugbúandi
     
ey ai snype < sneypa, misglimed < -gleyma,
  e: blaithin < *bleyðingr, daive < deyfa
  e glaip < gleypa, Sanday < Sandey
  ε: ersland < eyrisland, aire < eyrr
  ø (in old records) urisland, uirsland < eyrisland, gøma < geyma, løpir, lønlighe
     
ja ja yackle < jaxl
     
i(?) glee < gljá
     
o grono < grjón
  u lood < hljóð, loodan < hljóðan, NB. biwr < bjórr  ???
  ø ruithe < hrjóða, skyued < skjóttr
  į brisk < brjósk
    ? nita < ?njóta
     
b b (usually)  
  p pangse < bangsa, pivver < bivra, polt < boltr, pook < buka, puink < bunka
     
d d (usually)  
  t trimso < dramsa
  occasionally dropped in -nd øn < ǫnd
  dj > tʃ charve < djarfr, forcharved < fordjarfað?
     
ð preserved nither < niðra, ruithe < hroði, kuithe < kóð, meethe < mið?, owmuth? < umboð, braithin < bregða
  þ (occas.) with < við, footho < fuð, lithy < liðr
  (dropped) heemfare < heimferð, ee < iða, Lee < hlíð, mardroo < marþráðr, skrae < skreið, -gar < -garðr, sny < sneið, swee < sviða, teebro < tíðbrá, kleppi-spur < -sporðr, gee < geð
  d (sometimes) bod < boði, glad <glaðr, gleed < gleiðr, guid < gœða, hirdmanstein < hirðmannastefna
  t (occas.) daawurt < dagverð
  ðj > dž brudge < bryðja, rudge < ryðja
     
f f  
  v (as in ON between vowels and sonorants) arvo < arfi, charve < djarfr, hivvle < hefill, klov < klauf, krove < krof, rivling < hriflingr, skav < skafa, sweevle < sveifla
  dropped & assimilated:  
  before l matlo < maðfló??, Less/Lesh/Lashy < fles
  before b aaber < afberja, klibber < klyfberi
  before v aval < afvelta
  before d odder < ofdyri
  before n stein < stefna, Ham < hǫfn
  between vowels andoo < andœfa, tuo < þúfa
  finally skroo < skrúfr, BUT guff < gufa, skarf < skarfr, riff < rif
     
g retained for the most part  
  dropped (when spirant) forskin < forskyggni, geyro < gýgr, neester < gnistra, nyst, neest < gneisti, nile < negla, nit < gnit, roo < hrúga, sameyn < sameign, sile < sigl, smyoo < smjúga, tie < teigr, braithe < bregða, Voy < vági
  k (occas.) durk < dorg, knoop< gnúpr, krane < gren, kyirked < kergja, sook < súgr, swilkie < svelgr
  gn > nj, gl > lj nyaffle < gnafla, nyaggle < gnagla, rullyie < rugl
  freq. palatalized -gyar [gjǝr] < -garðr, dyelro < gildra, dyoard [djord] < gjorde, gjɔŋ < ganga
     
h retained initially  
  disappears before l,n,r nave < hnefi, reen < hrína, roo < hrúga, lood < hljóð
  hv > w, ʍ w: wee < hvía; ʍ: whess < hvessa
  hj > ʃ shuimet < hjálmóttr, shaygrey < *hjela-, sholtie < hjalti
  ʍ (occas.) Whup < hóp, Whupland < Hópland
  ch [x] (occas.) Chimeri < himli
     
k mostly retained  
  g (freq.) fig < fika, huiggle < hukla, yaggle < jakla, rag < raki, srpaagle < sprǫkla, stugg < stokka, stiggle < stikill
  t (occas.) ill-treested < treisk, ill-twartened < tverkandi, roost < rusk, sturten < storkna, strood < skrúð
  kn > sn (occas.) snoddy < knoða?
  palatalised before a front vowel kji?st < kist-
     
l mostly retained  
  disappears:  
  before k aak < álka, uiko < ulk, uivigar < *yvelker???
  between vowels buo < bóla, heyamet < heilagr
  before s hass < hals (Scots influence?)
  before m hom < hólmr. ium < ólmr
  finally faa < fall (Scots influence?)
  ll palatalized hellyiefer < helli-, rullyo < rulla
  lm > ml (sometimes) hemlins < hjelm??, hemlin < helmingr
     
m usually retained  
  fn > mn > m Ham < Hǫfn, Ramnigeo < Hrafnagjá, yamalt < jafnaldri
     
n generally retained  
  fn > mn > m Ham < Hǫfn, Ramnigeo < Hrafnagjá, yamalt < jafnaldri
  m when followed by labial consonant gamfer < *gegnferð, gomfer < gandferð, toomal < túnvǫllr
  ny > in (metathesis) feenk < fnykr
     
p retained  
  b (frequently) hiblin < hiplingr, horngibly < gepill?, kubby < koppr or kúpa, skraable < skrapla, tribble < tripla
    BUT: kuppo < koppr, gapis < gapuzi, luipy < laupr
     
r retained  
  rn > nn (occas.) banno-corn < barn
  rn > rl (occas.) mallo < marlaukr
     
s retained  
  ʃ (occas.) sharg < sarga
  ž runge < runsa, range < hreinsa
  sk > ʃ (occas.) hansho < handskór (?), shore < skári
  sk > ks (occas.) fyaksy < fjask
  dropped  
  between r and l smirlin < smyrslingr
  between k and l yackle < jaxl, aikel < øxl
  between t and l wattle < veizla, mittle < meizla
     
t usually retained  
  d (often) blade < blettr, skyued < skjóttr, sloond < slunt, smud < smutt?
  tj > tʃ chaldro < tjaldr, chold < tjalda, -chun < tjǫrn
     
þ t (usually) tulfar < þilfar, tuo < þúfa, tirl < þyrla, tang < þang
  d (occas.) droo < þráðr, mardroo < marþráðr, du < þu
  h Hurteso < Thurstainshow, Hurstane < Thurstath, Horraldshay < Thorwaldishow
     
v w daawurt < dagverð??, waddy < vað, waffle < vafla, wassy < vasi, week < vik
  v (in placenames) Vinquoy, Vinbreck, Voldibrae, Verpinno
     

 

 
 

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