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Phonetics of Shetland Norn
 

Based on "An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland" by Jakob Jakobsen.

Old Norse Shetland Norn Examples (Norn < Old Norse)
a a, ā fār < far, hāf < haf, ārm < armr; rāb/rab < hrap-/rabb?
  ä,äi (before palat.) bäļ < ball, fäļ < fall, bäļdin,baldin < baldinn, änd,äŋt < -and, äņəhva'rt < annathvárt, häņ < hann, käņ < kanna
  ɔ, o , ō mogi < magi, ogə, ɔkrə < akr, vɔkər < vakr, de fōgri < hinn fagri; gōrd < garðr, Vōrd < varða,varði
  ē, æ (rare) erg, εrg < arga, ērskäi < *arðskíð, gērbək,gærbək,garbək < *garðbalkr, to bē < baða
     
á ō,å,ȯ bōl,bɔul < bál, dōma,dūma < dámr, hō < háfr, to lōd < láta, to sō < sá, to spō < spá, vō < vágr, -tåt < þáttr, gōdək,gȯdək < gáta, lōdigrōd < *látugrátr
  wō  (Foula, Hildina) wo < á, twor < tár, fwo < fá
  ɔ(i),o(i) (before palat.) gɔiț,gȯiț < gátt, ūmɔiț,ūmȯiț < úmáttr
  ū,u smut < smátt
  ɔu tədbɔu(s) < *tíðbrá, bōl,bɔul < bál, blɔustər, blostər < blástr
     
e e,ε,æ,ē bεk < bekkr, brεna < brenna, bærg < berg, færd,færdək < ferð, mæ'rki < merki, rækstər < rekstr, to slεp,slæp < sleppa
ēvalous < efalauss, hēgri < hegri, lēga < lega
færdimεt,fērdimεt < *ferðarmatr, lεm, lēm, lemm < hlemmr
  ä,ε (before palat.) at:avε'ļta <*aptrvelta,hεļək < hella, hεļər < hellir, dwäļ < dvelja, skäļ < skell, räņd < renna, väņdi < vent
  o,ȯ (before w) hwȯli < hvelja, hwopət,kwopət < hveppti, past of hveppa
     
é jē (ē), ε, jε şēla < *hjela < héla, spjēlman < *spélmaðr, sp(j)ēviti < spévætti, jεlins < élingar, rεta-dyke < réttar-
  ə, ȯ (after w) wələ'nt, wȯlə'nt  < vélindi
     
i i, ī bidi < biti, driv < drif, līvən < lifandi
  e,ə bi'rtək,be'rtək,bə'rtək < birta, dəmska < *dimska, həmna < himna, kə'r˙kasuk˙ni < kirkjusókn
  ä,ε (before palat.) ä'ļskət < illskóttr, bä'ņtər,bji'ntər < *bindari, häņd < hinna, pei'ļk,pä'ļk < Nor.,Sw. pilka, şopä'ļti < sjópiltr, stä'ļk < stilkr, BUT stiļərs,steļərs,stäļərs < stillis, tiļi,teļi < þilja
  ʌ sələk,sʌlək  < silungr, tə'lfər,tʌ'fər < þilfar
     
í ī,i grīmi < gríma, hwīld < hvíld, ībit < *íbit, lī < hlíð, rī < hríð; risəl < hrísla, nisək < hnísa, simən < sími
  e tədbɔu(s),tedbɔu(s) < *tíðbrá
  ä,ε (before palat.) läțla,läitla < lítla
  i/äi occas. alternate läitla/litla < litla, hwī,kwī/hwäi,kwäi < kví
     
o o,ɔ,ȯ,ō, jo brɔd < brot, fɔg,fog,fjog,fjok < fok, kɔli < kola, nog(in) < hnokkr; to tjōg < toga
  u (occas.) krupin < kroppinn, urm-,orm- < ormr,
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) gȯit < gott, hȯļi < Nor. holleg,hollig, kȯņmæ'rki < *kornmaðkr, skȯit,skɔit < *skott < skoða,
  ø (esp. before ð) mø: < moð, bø: < boð, bø:r < borð; occas. in Eng. words: to møv,mȯv < move
     
ó ū gūən < góðan/góðing; hūb < hóp, klūr < klóra, mūd < mót, slū < slóð, şūr < sjóvar, stūr < stórr
  ø: (occas.) krø: < kró, rø:s < hrósa, mø/mū < *móða
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.)  
  ō (except.) groma < *gróma?, rɔvək < rófa, skogin < skóinn, tovi < þófi
     
u u bu'lk < Nor. bulk, bulin < bulungr,bolungr, rus < rus
  o,ȯ borəl < burl, rosk < rusk, flȯga < fluga, ȯrdəl < hurðar
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) ȯļa- < ullar-, rȯ'ļk < Nor. rulk, stȯ'ļka < stulka, mȯņd < mund, ȯņdali < undarligr, sȯņd < sund, stȯņd < Nor.standa,stonda,
     
ú u,ū bū < bú, rūg < hrúga, skrū < skrúfa, tūg < þúfa, tūn < tún, kupa < kúpa
  o,ȯ,ø (occas.) grøt < Icel. grútr, kupi,kopi,kobi < kúpa, mul,mol,mäl < múli
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) gȯļdət < *g(a)úldinn
     
y i (e) bIgin (bøgin) < bygging, birək, berək < byrjan,*byrjing, nidərd,nedərd < nytróttr, rIga- < hryggjar, nī (nø:) < nyt?
  ə bər,bȯr < byrr, fərə < fyrir, mə'rk < myrkr
  ø,ø:,ȯ don,dȯn < dynr, dȯs < dys, sȯtşkins < systkin, pøti,pəti < *pytti, tød < þytr
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) hȯņin,hȯņən < *hyrningr, dȯņa < dynar, mȯļgət < myglaðr, sȯțşkins < systkin, ūtȯțləχt,ūtȯitləχt < úþýðiligt; BUT bei'ļk, bäi'ļki < *bylki, rø'ļki < *rylki, ø:ņd,øiņd < hyrni
  o,u (after palat.) ņogəl,njogəl < nykr, sņukər,snokər < snykr
     
ý ø,ø: drø:lin < drýll, flø:d < flýta, gø:r < gýgr, hø: < hý, de ķør(ə)n < kýrnar; mørna < mýrina, bøsni < býsn
  ī,i brī < brýna, tīli < þýðligr, skrīvlin/skrø:vlin < skrýflingr, stīvin/stivən < *stýfingr
  ū (after palat.) ļū < hlýr
  ai (Scots infl.?) läir/lø:r < lýrr, skäil, skø:l,sķø:l < skýla
     
æ ē,e kēr(ə) < kærr, skrēlin < skrælingr, swēl < svæla, vēn < vænn; res < ræsa, dwetəl,dwətəl,twidəl < *þvætl,*þvætla
  ε,æ εrək,ærək < æringr
  ä (before palat.) twä(i)țəld < *þvætlaðr
  ȯ (except.) grȯla < græla
     
œ ø:,ø bø:li < bœli, *fø:r < fœra, kø:d < kœða, -mø: < mœða; bødi < *bœti, lølək < hlœgligr
  e (occas.) beniman < *bœniman
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) grȯņşka < grœnska
  ō (after palat.) ļōg < lœkr, BUT Løgəna < Lœkina [Lœkirnir]
     
ǫ ȯ,o(u),ō,ɔ,ə fjȯra,fjora,fjɔra < fjara,fjǫru, hjog < hǫggva, hogi < hǫgg, hȯm(b)li- < hǫmlu-, jokəl < jǫkull, jɔkəl < ǫxl, stɔŋ < stǫng
  ø:,ø şøn,şȯn < tjǫrn, tøþələp,todələk,tudələk < *tǫðulaupr
  ȯ(i), ɔ(i) (before palat.) trȯļ < trǫll, ȯņd,ɔņd < ǫnd
  ō (after palat.) ļōg < lǫgr
  ε(e),ē dεk < dǫkk, rεŋ < rǫng, fjēl < fjǫl
     
ei ē,ε:,ǣ, e,ε blēg < bleikr, ēd < eið, ēs < eisa, grē(d) < greiði, hε'nt,h´'nt < heimta, lεra < leira, rεdşkab < reiðskapr
  jē,jε (occas.) vjēdək,vjēdək < veit(a), jεdər,etər < eitr
     
au jō,jɔ bjōg < baugr, gjōl < gaula, jōga < auga
  ō,ȯ,o,ɔ (rare without j) *jōra, ōrna- < eyra (< *auRa), eyrna; tōm < taumr; gjɔpm,gopm < gaupn
  ø,ø: brø:d < braut, skø:vi < skauf, *grøtşta < grautstaðr, rø,rød < rauðr, rø:n,røni < hraun
  u lup,lop < hlaup, klustər,klostər,kløstər,klȯstər < klaustr; nut,nøt < naut
  ɔu (Scottish influence?) ɔus < ausa
     
ey ø: klø:vin < *kleyfingr, lø:bin < *hleypingr, rø:dastab < *reyðarstabbi, stø: < streyja, ø:r < eyrir, sø:da < seyða
  ē (rarely) ēr,ø:r < eyrr
  ō (after palat.) fļōg < fleygja
     
já,jó,jú ø:,ø drø:g < drjúgr, førə < fjórir, klø: < kljá, lø:(d) < hljóð, rød < hrjóta
  ū (after palat.), ljo (in Foula, partially) ļū < hljóð; hlýr; ļū < ljótr, ļūm(i) < ljómi, *ljūs < ljós
     
b b (usually)  
  p berdus, perdus < *bergdus, bjak,pjak < Nor. pjakke, onplost,o'mplost < andblástr
  v bəl,vəl < Nor. bull, bi'rtək,virda,virdək < birta, bȯ'ņşvam:,vȯ'ņşvam: < *barnsvamm
  ml > mbl gambli,gambla < gamli, hȯm(b)libands,*himblins < hǫmluband, skum(bə)l < skuml
     
d d (usually)  
  t bji'ntər < bindari; blȯ'nt < blundr
  dj > dž (Whalsay: tž) dža'rf (tşa'rf) < djarfr, džūb (tşūb) < djarfr, džur < djór, tşa'lk, da'lk < Nor. dalka, Far. dálka
  nd > ņ, ld > ļ hȯņən < hundinn, häņaless,hä'ņta(r)less < handa(r)lauss, miļənasto'mp < *myldingarstump
     
ð (dropped) gūə(n) < góða(n), lī < hlíð, lø: < hlýða, rī < hríð, snī,snē < sneiða, *trō < þráðr
  d bōd < boða, frōd < froða, gødin < *gœðing, kø:d < kœða, spadi < spaði, stȯdək < staði,*stœða; afrō,afrōd < afráða, grē,grēd < greiði, lø:,lø:d < hljóð, *rø:,rø:d < rauðr
  ðr > dr flādrək, flȯdərək < *flaðra, lȯdər < lǫðr, lūdərhorn < lúðr-, mȯdəra,-ə < maðr(inn), rudər,rūr < hrúðr
  rð > rd bIrdək < byrðr, bȯrd < burðr, færd < ferð; gōrd < garðr, hardi < harði, hərd < hirða, hȯrdək,hȯrdin < urð, skōrd < skarð, BUT galafər < -ferð (unstressed), stərən < stirðna, vâr < verði
  gð > g(d), occ. d, (ə)t afbreg(d),ōbreg,utbrag(:) < afbrigði, lagət (-əd) < lagðr
  t aitrahōla < aðrahvára, ū:tȯț:ləχt < úþýðiligt, väitikēb < vaðkeipr
  ðj > dž rȯdž < ryðja, BUT widi,widdi < viðja
  g fɔg:bȯr:gər < fokburðr, kāvabȯrg < *kafaburðr
  ðk - see þk  
     
f f, rf > rf dža'rf < djarfr, ska'rf < skarfr; dȯfən,dōvən < dofinn, kāfə, kāfa, kāvi,kāva < kafi, klȯfən,klȯvən < klofann, ņâfatag,nevatjɔg < *hnefatak
  v (as in ON -f- between vowels and sonorants) gåva < gáfa, arvi < arfi, hɔvi,høvi < háfr, krȯv < krof, nev < hnefi, riv < rifa, skāv < skafa, sōv < sofa,sœfa, tø:v < tœfa
  v (occasionally in the beginning of a word) fasgə'rt, vasgə'rt < fastgarðr, fȯdək,vatək < (dafek) < ?Gael. dubhach
  dropped after ō,ū hō < háfr, skrū < skrúfa, stū < stýfa
     
g commonly preserved, incl. between vowels and in the end bogi < bogi, drâg < drag, drōg < draga, flȯg < fluga, mogi < magi, rūg < hrúga, slāg < slag, smoga < smuga, stigi,stiggi < stigi, trogəl, truggel < trygill
  dropped vō < vágr
  k/tž (occas.), esp. in lg,ng mæ'rki,mergi < mergr, ha'ŋklin,haŋglin < *hanglingr, fļoknər < *flognir, kȯrhərd,gȯrhərd < *garðhirða, tžö'lk,džȯlgər,džölgər < gjalfr, Nor. gjelg,gjølg
  g > ĝ (palatalisation before front vowels: i,e,ø) gebi,ĝebi < Icel. gepill, gεld,ĝεld < gelda, ĝera < gera, ĝil < gil, gø:r,ĝø:r < gýgr
  gi,ggi > dži bεldžiən < belgin, knȯdži < knoggi
  gj < dž (gj) džȯlgər,džölgər < gjalfr, Nor. gjelg,gjølg, gjō < gjá
  gl > lg mȯļgət < myglaðr
     
h retained initially  
  dropped occasionally before a vowel, j,w (h)a'l:tagɔŋ:gi < *haltaganga, jigəl(ti),hjigəl,hjogəl < hégeitill, jɔ'nsi, hjɔnsi < hœns, ūrām,horəm < hárhamr, ūriən,wōrin,jōrin < *háringr, wȯ'lsbane,hwȯ'lsbane < hálsbein, ogg < hugga, ȯrdəltree < *hurðartré;
Foula ballad: elde < heldr, e(i)dnar < hennar, yilsa < heilsa, yom < heim
  inserted before a vowel in the beginning of words häņ:vâg < *andvaka, hildin < eldinn, hȯrdək,hȯrdin < urð(in), hofsahεļək,ofsahεļək < *upsarhella
  hl > l
hr > r,occas. hr,kr
hn > hn,kn, occas. n,sn
lī < hlíð, røni < hraun, rām,kramək < hrammr, knεp,knæð < hneppa,kneppa, knɔkins,snap < hnappr, snig < hneggja, snigin,snigom,negi < *hneggingr, snjūg(i) < knjúkr,hnjúkr, snȯt(i),snət(i) < hnǫttr,knǫttr
  hv > hw,kw, sw (rarely) hwāl,kwāl < hvalr, swam(m) < hvammr
  hj > ş şarəl < hjarl, şålmət < hjálmóttr, şēla < *hjēla < héla, BUT ja'rta < hjarta
     
k mostly retained kikən < *kykandi, lik < lík, puki,puka < púki, rēk < reka, rok < rok, şøk < sjúkr, vɔkər < Far. vakur
  g (freq., when final or between vowels; occasionally in initial position) bâgi < bak, blāg < blaka, brogi < Nor. brokkut, klāg < klaka, kragək < kraki, krūg < krókr, ļōg < lœkr, njogəl < nykr, ōg < aka, râg,rēg < reka, stjāgi < stjaki, sø:ga,sø:gi < sýki, -tag,-tjɔg < -tak; blɔka,bloga < *blaðka, fjȯk,fog,fɔg,fjȯg < fok,fjúk-,  stuki,stjūgi < stúka,ɔkrə,ogə(r) < akr; gjōla < Nor.kjore, gōgi(s),kōgi(s) < kaga, grȯg,krȯg < *kruk
  palatalised before a front vowel ķēb,kēb < keipr, ķεgər,kεgər < keikr, ķipək,kipək < kippi, ķø'rk < kyrkja, ķø:r(ə)n < kýrnar, sķεga < skeki, sķøl,skøl < skýla, BUT kə'r:kasuk:ni < kirkjusókn
  kj > kj,ķ kjɔ'lk < kjálki, kjōlək,kjørək < Nor. kjore,kjøra, skjō < Nor. skjå, *skjɔldra < *skjaldra; BUT kjōb,ķōb < kaup, sķōl,sķūl < skjól
  kk > g(γ) (occasionally) baga- (baγa-), bagi- < bakka-, nægistik (næγi-) < *hnakkastykki, bloga (bloγa), bloka < *blakka < *blaðka
     
l mostly retained  
  vl > lv kεvəl,kεlvək,kεlva < kefli, skalvə < skafl
  gl > lg mȯļgət < myglaðr
  lm > ml skul(ə)m, skum(bə)l < skuml
  l > r fjȯrd < fjøldi, nɔralεg < *nálarleggr, swār,swāl < Nor. sval
  l > ļ (before a consonant, occasionally initially);
ll,rl > ļ; (palatalization)
pei'ļk, päi'ļk < No. pilk, rȯļk < Nor. rulk, stå'ļk < stilkr, bäļ < ball, fäļ < fall, hεļək < hella, hεļər < hellir, hȯļi < No. holleg,hollig; skäļ < skellr, trȯļ < trǫll, kåļ < karl; BUT bäļdin,baldin < baldinn, melən (meļən) < millum, hōkil(l)in < hákerling;
fļōg < fleygja, ļōg < lǫgr;lœkr; ļū < hljóð;hlýr; ļū < ljótr, ļūm(i) < ljómi
  ld > ļ miļənasto'mp < *myldingarstump
     
m usually retained  
  ms > ŋ(k)s fj'ɔŋs,fjo'ŋsət < Nor. fjoms; ho'ŋ(k)s, ho'ms < Nor. humsken, L.Sc. hum; ro'ŋ(k)s, ro'ms < raumska
  lm > ml skul(ə)m, skum(bə)l < skuml
     
n generally retained  
  fn > mn, m (finally) stȯmna,stəmna < stofn, hamn- < hafn-, Ham < Hǫfn, stamərən < *stafn-rǫng
  n > ņ (before a consonant, occasionally initially);
nn,rn > ņ; (palatalization)
äņəhva'rt < annathvárt, häņ < hann, käņ < kanna, breņər,brεņər,bräņər < brennir, mȯņd < mund, ȯņdali < undarligr, väņt(i) < vent (þú), grȯņşka < grœnska, bȯņ,bɔņ < barn; BUT hȯni,həni,hȯņ,hɔņ < horn; mȯn,mȯņ < munnr, span < spann, mana < manna, brna,brεņa < benna, andər,aņdər < anddyri
njād,nād < Sw. knat?, njafin,njafək < Sw.dial. naffa, L.Sc. naff,nyaff, njatəri < *gnatra,gnaddra, ņogəl,njogəl < nykr
  nd > ņ hȯņən < hundinn, häņaless,hä'ņta(r)less < handa(r)lauss
  nn > ņd räņd < renna, säņd < sanna; blohȯņdin,blohȯņin < *biloðhyrningr; drȯņd,drȯin < drynja
     
p retained  
  b (usually when final, or between vowels) džūb < djúp, flab < flapr, glâb < glap, glȯb < glop, glø:b < *gleypr, hūb < hóp, kjōb < kaup, lø:bin < *hleypingr, rab,rāb < hrap, sȯb < saup, strȯba < stopi, ūb,ø:b < óp, ūb,ø:b < œpa; kupi,kȯbi < kúpa, etərskab,etərskop < eitrskapr, rεdşkab < reiðskapr, spjēskāb < *spéskapr; BUT lândsķεp < landskapr
  pp > b (occasionally) skεbək,skæbək < skeppa, snæbək,snabək,snεp(i),snæp(i) < *hneppi, kibək < kippa
  ft > pt (bd) ap(ta) < aptann [-ft-], skεptin,skεbdək < *skeptingr; Tȯpti-,Tȯptəns (Təptəns), Taft < tópt
     
r retained  
  rn > nn (occas.) banno-corn < barn
  rn > rl (occas.) mallo < marlaukr
  tr > rd slȯrd,slȯdər < slytra
  r > l aitrahōla < aðrahvára, buliŋ,būrək < *buringr, gjōla,kjōlək,kjø:lək,kjø:rək < Nor.kjore,kjøra, kȯrl,korr < kyrr;misfø:ld,misfø:rd < misfór(sk), njogəl,ņogəl < nyk, ȯrdəl- < huðar-?
     
s retained  
  dropped between k and l bjɔkəl < bœxl, jakəl < jaxl, jɔkəl < ǫxl
     
t usually retained frεt < freta, hatər < hatra, klut < klútr, mjat < mat, skītək < *skítingr
  d (usually when final, or between vowels; occasionally in initial position) bidi < biti, -brɔd < -brot, flāda < flata, gad < gat, ļūd < ljótr, mādər < matr, mūd,mōd < mót, rø:d < hrjóta, slȯd < slot, sōd < sát, sōdi,sɔdi < sæti,*sáti,v(j)ēdək < veita; jεdər,etər < eitr, fȯdək,vatək < fata, grūd,grøt < grjót, grødək,grø:tək < grýta, nød,not,ut < naut, søda,søt(a) < sœtr,sœta; drȯļ:şlâ:gət,trȯļ:şlâ:gət < trǫllsleginn, da'mp < Dan./L.Germ. tamp
  dropped (occasionally when final) (spirvi)gru < -grjót, lag:stø:(t:) < *lagsteyta, *ȯrdətū,*ōrdədȯit < *árdagsdot(t), hwī < hvítt
  ț,ď (palatalisation) äțifər, äitifər,atwərs,ȯďbə'rt,äďbə'rt < atferð, gɔiț,gȯiț < gátt, ūtȯțləχt,ūtȯitləχt < úþýðiligt, -hɔiț < -háttr, läțla,läitla < lítla, twä(i)țəld < *þvætlaðr, väțibând,väitaband < *vattaband
  tj > ş; tş (when final) şaldər < tjaldr, şȯn < tjǫrn, uşūna < Nor. utjona; Foula ballad: chaldona < tjaldinu; vitş < vitja
  tt > d (occasionally) minȯd < miðnátt, tȯd,tȯdək < tuttr
  tr > rd slȯrd,slȯdər < slytra
     
þ t tari < þari, tə'lfər,tʌ'lfər < þilfar, tiļi,teļi < þilja, (u)tīli < (ú)þýðligr, togə- < þoku-, to'rkəsȯt < *þukasótt, trō < þráð, trūən < þró(in), twä(i)țəld < *þvætlaðr
  d dōm < þám, dɔd < þot, du,dū < þú, dwa'rs < þvers, dwetəl,dwətəl < *þvætla < þvætta;
the Foula ballad: dar < þar, do < þá
  þj > ş şok(k)a < þjukkr
  þk > rk (occas.) kȯņmæ'rki < *kornmaðkr [-þk-], cf. Nor. mark < maðkr
     
v v (in most cases)  
  w (initially) Watli < Vatnshlíð, wadməl < vaðmál, wələ'nt,wȯlə'nt < vélindi, widi < viðja, wæ'lşi < vǫlsi
  vl > lv kεvəl,kεlvək,kεlva < kefli, skalvə < skafl
     

 

 
 

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