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Lesson Eleven.

1. Genitive. Weak declension.

In singular, the genitive of weak nouns has the same ending as the accusative and dative. In plural, the common ending -a is used in masculine, while feminine and neuter forms add -na:

  Sg. Pl.
M. drengi – drenga drengar – drenga
F. floga – flogu floger – flogna
N. hjarta – hjarta hjartu – hjartna

Examples:
kniv drenga, ljus måna, streng boga, kant skivu, kant skivna, pipper hjarta, pipper hjartna, blig joga, blig jogna;
a boy’s knife (= boys’ knife), light of a moon(s), string of a bow, edge of a disk, edge of disks, beat of a heart, beat of hearts, blink of an eye, blink of eyes.
 
dokka ‘young girl’ (nf.w.), mågi ‘stomach’ (nm.w), jora ‘ear’ (nn.), bogi ‘curve; small bay’ (nm.), nyra ‘kidney’ (nn.), nalta ‘grain, particle’ (nf.), måni ‘moon’ (nm.), skiva ‘slice; piece of turf’ (nf.);
kant (nm.s1.) ‘edge’, pipper (nn.s.) ‘beat (f.ex. heart-beat)’, blig (nn.s.) ‘blink’

Exercise 11.1.
Translate into Nynorn:

A girl’s dog, a girl’s dogs, girls’ dog, girls’ dogs, a boy’s boat, boys’ jackets, a picture of a kidney, picture of kidneys, deck of a boat, deck of boats.

jakki nm.w. – jacket
dekk nn.s. – deck 

 

2. Perfect tense of weak verbs

Weak verbs form their perfect participle through adding a suffix similar to the one used in past tense (see Lesson 8, p. 2), except that roots ending in -d get a different treatment:

1. Verbs in class 1 (gera) add -d after voiced consonants (r,m,n,l,v,b,g) or -t following an unvoiced consonants (s,p,t,k). The stems of verbs ending in -d stay unchanged.
2. Verbs in class 2 (kalla) add the suffix -að (pronounced as [-a]).

In the perfect tense, the neuter form of the participle is used. In practice it means that -d is replaced with -t wherever applied, while -að stays unchanged:

1. gera: gerd 'done/made' – eg hevi gert 'I have done/made'
senda: send 'sent (pres.part.)' – eg hevi sent 'I have sent'
hjålpa: hjålpt [jolt] 'I helped (pres.part.)' – eg hevi hjålpt 'I have helped'

2. kalla: kallað 'called (pres.part.)' – eg hevi kallað 'I have called'


Exercise 11.2.
Translate into Nynorn:

A boy has called a dog. A girl has saved horses. She has had dogs. We haven't had dogs. I have saved you (sg.). You (pl.) have visited us. He has built houses. A boy has bought balls.

 

3. Cardinal numerals

1 en
2 tver
3 trir
4 fyre
5 fimm
6 seks
7 sjø
8 åtta
9 nie
10 tie
11 ellive
12 tolv
13 tretten
14 fjurten
15 fimmten
16 seksten
17 sjøtjen
18 åtjen
19 nitjen
20 tuttu
21 tuttu og en
30 tretti
40 fjoreti
50 fimti
60 seksti
70 sjøti
80 åttati
90 niti
100 (et) hundrað (neuter)
200 tvø hundrað
300 trø hundrað
400 fyre hundrað
500 fimm hundrað
876 åtta hundrað sjøti og seks
1000 (et) tusen (neuter)
2000 tvø tusen
3000 trø tusen
4000 fyre tusen
481 926 fyre hundrað åttati og et tusen ni hundrað tuttu og seks
1 000 000 (en) milljon (feminine)
2 000 000 tver milljoner
3 000 000 trer milljoner
4 000 000 fyre milljoner
1 000 000 000 (en) milljard (masculine)
2 000 000 000 tver milljardar
3 000 000 000 trir milljardar
2 362 283 379 tver milljardar trø hundrað seksti og tver milljoner tvø hundrað åttati og trø tusen trø hundrað sjøti og ni


The first 3 numerals decline in the same way as adjectives, agreeing with the noun in gender, case and number. En '1' has both singular and plural (the meaning of plural is 'alone' applied to multiple persons), while tver and trir are plural only.

Sg. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. en en ett
Acc. en(an) ena ett
Dat. enon enari enu
Gen. ens ennar ens

Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. ener enar en
Acc. ena enar en
Dat. enon enon enon
Gen. enna enna enna

(Pl.) Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. tver tver tvø
Acc. två tver tvø
Dat. tvemon tvemon tvemon
Gen. tvegga tvegga tvegga

Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. trir trer trø
Acc. trå trer trø
Dat. trimon trimon trimon
Gen. trigga trigga trigga
 

The rest of the numerals are invariant to changes in gender and case.

Examples:

a. (one sg.) en drengi, en dokka, ett hjarta, en hest, en fjord, en ferd, ett nyra, ett bånn
one boy, one girl, one heart, one horse, one fjord, one trip, one kidney, one child
b. (one pl.) Dir voru ener. Der voru enar. De voru en.
They (M) were alone. They (F) were alone. They (N) were alone.
c. (two) tver drengar, tver dokker, tvø hjartu, tver hestar, tver fjorder, tver ferder, tvø nyru, tvø bånn
two boys, two girls, two hearts, two horses, two fjords, two trips, two kidneys, two children
d. (three) trir drengar, trer dokker, trø hjartu, trir hestar, tver ferder, trø nyra, trø bånn
three boys, three girls, three hearts, three horses, three fjords, three trips, three kidneys, three children
e. (acc) um en drenga, fyri ena dokku, um ett hjarta; um två drenga, fyri tver dokker, um tvø hjartu; um trå drenga, fyri trer dokker, um trø hjartu; um fyre drenga, fyri fyre dokker, um fyre hjartu
about one boy, for one girl, about one heart etc.
f. (dat) veð enon drenga, frå enari dokku, i enu hjarta; veð tvemon drengon, frå tvemon dokkon, i tvemon hjarton; veð trimon drengon, frå trimon dokkon, i trimon hjarton; veð fyre drengon, frå fyre dokkon, i fyre hjarton
with one boy, from one girl, in one heart etc.
g. (gen) til ens drenga, uten ennar dokku, til ens hjarta; til tvegga drenga, uten tvegga dokka, til tvegga hjartna; til trigga drenga, utenn trigga dokka, til trigga hjartna; til fyre drenga, uten fyre dokka, til fyre hjartna.
to one boy, without one girl, to one heart etc.

Exercise 11.3.
Translate into Nynorn:

a) one boy, one girl, one child, two boys, two girls, two children, three boys, three girls, three children, four horses, seven days, nine houses, eleven days;
b) to one girl, from seven days, with three horses, for three weeks, to two houses, for three boys, with seven dogs, about three old women.
c) 2845, 45 967, 2 653 282, 35 864 592, 3 213 561 864

 

Reading

Dað er sju dagar i hvarari vogu: månadag, tysdag, udensdag, hursdag, fridag, ljogardag og sunnudag. Dað er en dag mella månadags og udensdags, tver dagar mella hursdags og ljogardags og trir dagar mella tysdags og fridags.
Dað eru tolv måneder i hvaru åri: januar, februar, mars, april, mai, juni, juli, august, september, oktober, november og desember. Januar, mars, mai, juli, august, oktober og desember hava 30 og en dag. April, juni, september og november hava 30 daga. Februar hever 20 og åtta daga, men enu fari å fyre åron er der 20 og nie dagar.
Man plagar at vinna ikke å ljogardagon og sunnudagon, eser tver dagar eru kallaðer samen “helli”.


hvar – every (also can mean who, what, which)
månadag nm. s1. – Monday
tysdag nm. s1. – Tuesday
udensdag nm. s1. – Wednesday
hursdag nm. s1. – Thursday
fridag nm. s1. – Friday
ljogardag nm. s1. – Saturday
sunnudag nm. s1. – Sunday
mella prep. G – between
måned nm. s2 – month
januar nm. s1 – January
februar nm. s1 – February
mars nm. s1 – Mars
april nm. s1 – April
mai nm. s1 – May
juni nm. s1 – June
juli nm. s1 – July
august nm. s1 – August
september nm. s1 – September
oktober nm. s1 – October
november nm. s1 – November
desember nm. s1 – December
esi, masc.nom.pl. eser – this, these
plaga at vw2 – be using to, used to, normally
helli nf. s1 – week-end

NB! names of the months do never change: frå april til august

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