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Lesson Twelve.

1. Genitive of adjectives and pronouns.

In singular, the genitive endings of adjectives and pronouns are similar to those of the strong substantive declension. In plural genitive the common ending -ra is used in all three genders.


  Sg. Pl.
M. gul – guls guler – gulra
F. gul – gular gular – gulra
N. gult – guls gul – gulra

Adjectives in -el,-en as well as participles in -en have the plural genitive ending -a due to an assimilation of -r- with the preceding -l- or -n-:

  Sg. Pl.
M. litel – litels litler – litela
F. litel – litlar litlar – litela
N. litið – litels litel – litela

  Sg. Pl.
M. voksen – voksens voksner – voksena
F. voksen – voksnar voksnar – voksena
N. voksið – voksens voksen – voksena

Be advised that forms like litela, voksena should NOT be shortened into litla, voksna, which serve for other combinations of gender and case.

Genitive of personal pronouns:

  Sg. Pl.
1 eg 'I' – min 'mine' vi 'we' – vor 'ours'
2 du 'you' – din 'thine' di 'you pl.' – dor '(to) you pl.'
3 hann 'he' – hans 'his'
hun 'she' – hennar 'her(s)'
dað 'it' – dess 'its'
dir 'they M' – derra 'theirs M'
der 'they F' – derra 'their(s) F'
de 'they N' – derra 'they(s) N'

As you can see, the genitive of personal pronouns was a base for possessive pronouns in the 1st and 2nd person.

Genitive of possessive pronouns:

min 'my' – sg. mins/pl. minna (din and sin likewise)
vor 'our' – sg. vors/ pl. vorra (dor likewise)

Exercise 12.1.
Translate into Nynorn:

To them, without me, to her, to us, without you (sg.), without you (pl.).

 

2. Preterite-present verbs

This group consists of the following verbs:

munu 'will/shall (fut.)',
skulu 'shall, must',
kunnu 'can',
vilja 'to wish, will',
'may',
vita 'to know'.

Most of these are used as modal or auxiliary verbs. As the name of this group suggests, these verbs form their present like past (“preterite”) of strong verbs. As for their own past, it's formed according to the rules for weak verbs.

NB. Historically what is today seen as the present of such verbs was in fact their past tense. Later on the meaning changed and their past started being perceived as present (cf. “I('ve) got a desire” > „I want“). The lack of the past was addressed by making new forms in the manner of weak verbs.


Pres. Sg. Pl. 
1. eg myn, skal vi mynu, skulu 
2. du myn(t), skal(t) di mynu, skulu
3. hann myn, skal der mynu, skulu

 
Past Sg. Pl. 
1. eg myndi, skuldi vi myndu, skuldu
2. du myndi, skuldi di myndu, skuldu
3. hann myndi, skuldi der myndu, skuldu

The other verbs in this group conjugate in a similar way:

eg kann, vi kunnu
eg kundi, vi kundu

eg vil, vi vilja
eg vildi, vi vildu

eg må, vi må
eg måtti, vi måttu


Examples:
Eg skal koma. Vi måttu gera ita. Hann vildi sova. Eg myndi ringa til din jift eg visti dit nummer.
I must come. We might do this. He wanted to sleep. I would call you if I knew your number.


Ega 'to own' is a weak verb, which in many respects resembles preterite-present verbs and is often used in a modal context having the meaning 'have to, ought to':

eg egi, du/hann eger, vi ega
eg åtti, vi åttu

Ega requires the infinitive particle at, unlike the above-mentioned verbs:

II have to be at home at 7 o' clock. Eg egi at vera hema klokkan 7.

The English verb ought (to) is in fact the same word as åtti/åttu in Nynorn, or its counterparts in other Scandinavian languages.

Exercise 12.2.
Translate into Nynorn:

I want to sleep. You (sg.) must leave. She knows it. They will be here. We can speak Faroese. He could become a fisherman. I would call you (sg.). May I come? They (M) must be sitting here. We wanted to buy fish. I knew that she didn't know it.

 

3. Ordinal numerals

1. fyrsti 'first'
2. annar 'second; other'
3. tridi 'third'
4. fjurdi 'fourth' etc.
5. femti
6. setti
7. sjøendi
8. åttendi
9. niendi
10. tiendi
11. ellivti
12. tolvti
13. trettendi etc.
20. tuttugasti

All of the above numerals decline as weak adjectives except annar

b) annar:
Sg. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. annar annar annað
Acc. annan adra annað
Dat. adron annari/adrari adru
Gen. annars annar annars

Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nom. adrer adrar annar
Acc. adra adrar annar
Dat. adron adron adron
Gen. annara annara annara

Exercise 11.3.
Translate into Nynorn:

1stday, 2nd dog, 7th girl, 5th child, 13th boat, 2nd eye, 3d ear

 

Reading

Minir foreldrar hava en vin eð heder Magnus Hendriksson. Hann er seksti og fyre åra gamel og bur i Lervik. Dað fyrsta eð hann gerer då hann vaknar å mornana er at drekka te. Hann plagar at drekka två kappa, sjåldnast teger hann dann trida. Darefter leser hann spørinsblað og genger tur ned i miðbøen. Hann syngur i kori adrahvara viku. Um sommerið dveler Magnus trår til fimm viker i Hvalsø hvor hann er fødd. I år dann trettanda september fyller kona hans sonar, eð bur i Aberdeen, tretti og femm år. Hann vil darfyri vitsja de i Aberdeen. Dað varger enar vogu ferdalek. Son Magnusar heder Erik og kona Eriks heder Marit. Magnus kenner foreldra Maritar og de eru guder viner. Magnus keder sog at vera hema ensamel uten sins sonar, verdøtrar og tvegga bånnabånna – hann vildi jarni sjå de oftar. Darfyri hever hann kjobt sjer hund. Hund Magnusar heder Garm. Magnus vildi fara veð hundenon til Aberdeen, men ita kundi vera alt for hårt fyri hunden, så Magnus skal sannlikast efterlada hunden hjå enon sinna granna [hjå enon av sinon grannon].


conj. – who, which
år nn. s. – year
gamel adj. (pl. gambler, gamblar, gamel) – old
ens, tuttu og ens, tretti og ens års gamal etc. – 1,21,31 year's old etc (år requires gen.sg. when the number of years ends at 1, except 11)
tvegga, trigga, fyre, fimm, ellivu, tuttu og nie åra gamel – 2,3,4,5,11,29 years old (år requires gen.pl.)
te nn. s. – tea
plaga (at) vw2. – usually does something
kapp nm. s1. – cup
sjålden adv. – seldom
sjåldnast adv. – superl. of sjålden, also means 'extremely seldom'
darefter adv. – thereafter, after that
lesa vs. – to read
dann acc. pron.dem. – that (preferably used when an ordinal numeral stands alone)
spørinsblað nn. s. – newspaper
gånga, pres. genger vs. – to go, walk
tur nm. s1. – tour, walk
genger tur – goes for a walk
miðbø nm.s1. – center of the town
ned i miðbøen – downtown (direction)
synga vs. – to sing
kor nn. s. - choir
annehvar, fem.sg.acc. adrahvara – every second
dvelja, past dvaldi vw.1 – to dwell
vw1. – to give birth
fødd – past part. of , born
fylla vw1. – to have a birthday; to get filled
kona nf. w – wife
darfyri adv. – therefore, for that reason
varga vs. – become, will be
ferdalek nm. s1. – journey
enar vogu [tvegga vogna] ferdalek – one week's [two weeks] journey
foreldrar nm. s1. pl. – parents
keda vw1. – to make smb bored
keda sog – to be bored
hema adv. – at home
ensamel adj. (pl. ensambler, ensamblar, ensamel) – alone
verdøtter, gen. verdøtrar – son's wife
bånnabånn nn.s. – grandchild
jarni adv. – eagerly
oft adv., comp. oftar – often
etta – this, neuter sg. nom./acc. of essi
hård adj., neu./adv. hart – hard, difficult
sannlik adj., superl. sannlikast – probable
efterlada vs. – to leave behind
granni nm. – neighbour
en sinna [en av sinon] – one of somebody's + pl.


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